Particle model of matter

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others:

  • What is the particle model of matter?
  • How can the solid, liquid and gaseous states of matter be explained with the particle model?
  • What are the assumptions on which an ideal gas is based?
  • What types of phase transitions can be distinguished?
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Temperature and particle motion

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others:

  • What is the general relationship between the temperature and the particle movement of a substance?
  • Why does the volume of a substance usually increase as the temperature rises?
  • What is diffusion or Brownian motion?
  • What influence does temperature have on diffusion?
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Temperature scales

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others:

  • What is temperature in the physical sense a measure for?
  • Which reference points are used as the basis for the Celsius scale and the Fahrenheit scale?
  • How can the temperature be converted from Fahrenheit to Celsius?
  • What is absolute zero and what role does it play in connection with the Kelvin scale?
  • How can absolute zero be determined experimentally?
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Liquid filled thermometer (liquid-in-metal)

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others:

  • How do a liquid-in-metal thermometers work?
  • Why should the inner diameter of the coiled tube be kept as small as possible?
  • How can large distances between measuring point and temperature indicator be covered?
  • What has to be taken into account when large differences in height have to be overcome between the measuring point and the display?
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Resistance Temperature Detector (Resistance thermometer)

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others:

  • How do resistance thermometers work?
  • Why should the measurement current for an RTD be as low as possible?
  • How can the temperature be determined from the resistance of a Pt100?
  • What is the difference between a Pt100 and a Pt1000 and what are their pros and cons?
  • How can the influence of the lead resistance on the temperature measurement be compensated?
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Thermocouple

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others:

  • How does a thermocouple work?
  • What is the Seebeck effect?
  • What are the differences between the types of thermocouples?
  • What is cold junction compensation?
  • What are the advantages of thermocouples compared to resistance thermometers?
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Pressure and temperature

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others:

  • What is the kinetic theory of gases?
  • What are the assumptions on which the kinetic theory of gases is based?
  • How can the pressure of a gas be explained on a microscopic level?
  • How can the gas pressure be calculated?
  • What is the relationship between the mean energy of the molecules and the temperature?
  • How is the internal energy of an ideal gas determined?
  • What statement does the equipartition theorem provide?
  • What is a degree of freedom in the thermodynamic sense?
  • Why does a direction of oscillation have two degrees of freedom?
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Equipartition theorem

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others:

  • What statement does the equipartition theorem provide?
  • What is a degree of freedom in the thermodynamic sense?
  • Why does a direction of oscillation have two degrees of freedom?
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Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others:

  • What is the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution?
  • For which “substances” does the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution only apply?
  • How is the area under the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution to be interpreted?
  • How does the gas pressure and temperature influence the speed distribution of an ideal gas?
  • How can the process of evaporation of liquids be qualitatively explained with the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution?
  • With which speeds can the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution be characterized?
  • Why is temperature generally not a direct measure of the temperature of gases?
  • What is the relationship between the temperature and the average kinetic energy of the particles in an ideal gas?
  • How can an energy distribution function be derived from the speed distribution function?
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Internal energy & heat capacity

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others:

  • What is the internal energy of a gas?
  • What are the characteristics of the thermal energy of a gas?
  • What is meant by a degree of freedom?
  • Why are degrees of freedom of vibration counted double?
  • Why do diatomic molecules have only two degrees of freedom of rotation?
  • What does the equipartition theorem state?
  • How can the internal energy of an ideal gas be determined on the basis of the degrees of freedom?
  • Why does the temperature of a gas rise during compression?
  • What does the molar heat capacity of a substance express?
  • What is an isochoric process and is the molar heat capacity determined in this context?
  • What is volume change energy?
  • What is an isobaric process?
  • What is an isochoric process and how is the molar heat capacity determined in this context?
  • What is the relationship between the molar heat capacity of the isobaric and the isochoric process?
  • What characterizes an “adiabatic” process and what parameter plays an important role?
  • What is meant by a “frozen” degree of freedom?
  • What is a perfect gas?
  • What does the Dulong-Petit law state?
  • What is the relationship between the molar heat capacities and the specific heat capacities?
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