Rutherford’s atomic model

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others:

  • What is the setting of the gold foil experiment?
  • What are α-particles?
  • What conclusion can be drawn from the gold foil test?
  • How big is the atomic shell compared to the atomic nucleus?
  • How heavy is a proton or a neutron compared to an electron?
  • What percentage of the total mass of an atom is at the core?
  • What are the strengths and weaknesses of Rutherford’s atomic model?
  • What is meant by the term model?
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Bohr’s atomic model

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others:

  • What is meant by a shell?
  • What is a postulate?
  • What distinguishes the ground state of an atom?
  • How can an atom absorb or emit energy?
  • How much energy does it take to stimulate an atom?
  • What happens to the “excess” of energy when an excited atom returns to its ground state?
  • What is a quantum leap?
  • How many electrons have maximum space on a particular shell?
  • What is meant by a valence electron or a valence shell?
  • To what question can Bohr’s model give no answer?
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Bohr-Sommerfeld model

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others:

  • What main innovation did Sommerfeld introduce?
  • How many sub shells does a main shell have?
  • How many electrons have space within a particular subshell?
  • What is meant by the electron configuration of an element?
  • How do you apply the Aufbau prinziple?
  • What statement makes the Pauli exclusion principle?
  • How is the different electron configuration reflected in the periodic table?
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