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# Gases and liquids 0

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### Flow separation (boundary layer separation)

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In the case of a boundary layer separation (flow separation), the flow can no longer follow the profile of the body around which it flows and separates turbulently from...

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### Thermal and concentration boundary layer

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In addition to the hydrodynamic boundary layer, the thermal boundary layer and the concentration boundary layer also have a decisive influence on the entire heat and mass transport in...

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### Calculation of the Nusselt numbers for forced flows over plates and in pipes

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In this article you will find formulas for calculating the local and average Nusselt numbers for forced flows over plates and in pipes with circular cross sections.

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### Streamlines, pathlines, streaklines and timelines

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In order to make the flow of fluids "visible", one often uses the model of streamlines, pathlines (trajectories), streaklines or timelines. Learn more about the difference between these lines...

### Equation of motion of a fluid on a streamline

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In this article we want to derive the equation of motion of a fluid element on a streamline. For this purpose we describe the equation of motion in the...

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### Energetic analysis of the Hagen-Poiseuille law

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The Hagen-Poiseuille equation for describing the parabolic velocity profile of fluids in pipes applies only to long pipes for energy reasons! Learn more about it in this article.

### Reynolds number (laminar and turbulent flow)

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The Reynolds number is a dimensionless similarity parameter for describing a forced flow, e.g. whether it is an alminar or turbulent flow. Learn more about it in this article.

### Viscosity of liquids and gases

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The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of the internal resistance to flow! It is caused by intermolecular forces and transport of momentum within the fluid. Learn more...

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### Discharge of liquids (Torricelli’s law)

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Torricelli's law (Torricelli's theorem) states that the discharge velocity of a liquid equals a free fall of the liquid from the liquid surface to the opening of the tank.

### How does a hot air balloon work: Buoyancy in gases

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Buoyant forces act not only in liquids but also in gases. This will be illustrated in the following by the example of a hot air balloon.

### How does a hydraulic jack work: Pascals law

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A hydraulic jack is based on Pascal's law, which states that the pressure in liquids acts equally in all directions. This article...

### Siphon

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How does a siphon work?What is the maximum height to the apex of the flexible tube...

### Pressure in liquids (hydrostatic pressure)

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What causes the hydrostatic pressure in liquids?On which variables does the hydrostatic pressure depend?What is the...

### How do boats float: Buoyancy in liquids

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Buoyancy is the force directed against gravity that an object experiences when submerged in a fluid (liquid or gas). More information on how buoyancy is formed can be found...

### Applications and examples of hydrostatic pressure

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: Which properties of the hydrostatic pressure could Pascal demonstrate with his barrel experiment?How does the pressure...

### How does a drinking straw work?

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How does drinking with a straw work from a physical point of view?What role does ambient...

### Barometric formula for an isothermal atmosphere

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The barometric formula describes the decrease of air pressure with increasing altitude. Without the influence of the temperature changes, the air pressure decreases by about 1.2% per 100 meters...

### Pressure in gases

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What causes the pressure in gases?How is the unit bar converted into the unit Pascal?What is...

### Pressure

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What is pressure?In what way does the contact pressure differ from a gas pressure or liquid...