Particle model of matter

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others:

  • What is the particle model of matter?
  • How can the solid, liquid and gaseous states of matter be explained with the particle model?
  • What are the assumptions on which an ideal gas is based?
  • What types of phase transitions can be distinguished?
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Temperature and particle motion

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others:

  • What is the general relationship between the temperature and the particle movement of a substance?
  • Why does the volume of a substance usually increase as the temperature rises?
  • What is diffusion or Brownian motion?
  • What influence does temperature have on diffusion?
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Temperature scales

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others:

  • What is temperature in the physical sense a measure for?
  • Which reference points are used as the basis for the Celsius scale and the Fahrenheit scale?
  • How can the temperature be converted from Fahrenheit to Celsius?
  • What is absolute zero and what role does it play in connection with the Kelvin scale?
  • How can absolute zero be determined experimentally?
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Liquid filled thermometer (liquid-in-metal)

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others:

  • How do a liquid-in-metal thermometers work?
  • Why should the inner diameter of the coiled tube be kept as small as possible?
  • How can large distances between measuring point and temperature indicator be covered?
  • What has to be taken into account when large differences in height have to be overcome between the measuring point and the display?
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Resistance Temperature Detector (Resistance thermometer)

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others:

  • How do resistance thermometers work?
  • Why should the measurement current for an RTD be as low as possible?
  • How can the temperature be determined from the resistance of a Pt100?
  • What is the difference between a Pt100 and a Pt1000 and what are their pros and cons?
  • How can the influence of the lead resistance on the temperature measurement be compensated?
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Thermocouple

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others:

  • How does a thermocouple work?
  • What is the Seebeck effect?
  • What are the differences between the types of thermocouples?
  • What is cold junction compensation?
  • What are the advantages of thermocouples compared to resistance thermometers?
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Blackbody radiation

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others:

  • What determines the colour of an object?
  • What is a black-body in the physical sense?
  • How can the generation of thermal radiation be explained on an atomic level?
  • How are black bodies realized in practice?
  • How can the different annealing colours of objects be explained?
  • How can the emitted wavelength spectrum be described mathematically?
  • What does the Stefan Boltzmann Law state?
  • What does Wien’s displacement law state?
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Stefan–Boltzmann law

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others:

  • What dows the Stefan-Boltzmann law state?
  • What does Kirchhoff’s law of thermal radiation state?
  • Why are blackbodies ideal radiant emitters?
  • How can the Stefan-Boltzmann law be derived from the laws of thermodynamics?
  • What is the relationship between the radiation pressure and the energy density of a photon gas?
  • How was it possible to calculate the Stefan Boltzmann constant?
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