Spectral distribution of the intensity of the radiation of a blackbody (Planck spectrum)

Planck’s law and Wien’s displacement law

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Planck's law describes the radiation emitted by black bodies and Wien's displacement law the maximum of the spectral intensity of this radiation. Learn more about it in this article. This article provides...
Visible radiation of a light bulb

Stefan-Boltzmann law & Kirchhoff’s law of thermal radiation

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The Stefan-Boltzmann law states that the radiant power of an object in thermal equilibrium is proportional to the fourth power of temperature and directly proportional to its surface! Learn more about...
Thermographic image of a car

How does a thermal imaging camera work?

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How do thermal imaging cameras work?Why is the thermal image displayed in false colors? Thermal imaging cameras are based on the same principle...
Infrared thermometer (Pyrometer)

How does a infrared thermometer (pyrometer) work?

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How do IR thermometers (pyrometers) work?What are the advantages of pyrometers? The thermometers presented in the previous articles must directly touch the object...
Thermocouple

How does a thermocouple work?

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How does a thermocouple work?What is the Seebeck effect?What are the differences between the types of thermocouples?What is cold junction compensation?What are...
Resistance thermometer (Pt100)

How does a resistance temperature detector (resistance thermometer) work?

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How do resistance thermometers work?Why should the measurement current for an RTD be as low as possible?How can the temperature be determined...
Cut through a vapour filled thermometer (vapour-in-metal thermometer)

How does a vapour pressure thermometer (vapour-in-metal) work?

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How do vapor pressure thermometers work?Why do vapor pressure thermometers have a non-linear scale? The less popular vapour pressure thermometers work according to...
Cut through a gas filled thermometer (gas-in-metal thermometer)

How does a gas filled thermometer (gas-in-metal) work?

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How do gas filled thermometers work?What are the advantages of gas-in-metal thermometers compared to liquid-in-metal thermometers?How can the influence of the...
Cut through a liquid filled thermometer (liquid-in-metal thermometer)

How does a liquid filled thermometer (liquid-in-metal) work?

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How do a liquid-in-metal thermometers work?Why should the inner diameter of the coiled tube be kept as small as possible?How can large...
Bimetal thermometer (spiral type)

How does a bimetallic strip thermometer work?

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How do bimetal thermometers work?Why is the bimetal wrapped into a spiral or a helix?Why are some bimetal thermometers equipped with switch...
Principle of temperature measurement with a liquid-in-glass-thermometer

How does a liquid-in-glass thermometer work?

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How do liquid thermometers work?What properties must thermometric liquids have?Why is mercury hardly used as a thermometer fluid nowadays?Which liquids are predominantly...
White glow of a blackbody at 6000 K

Blackbody radiation

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Blackbody radiation (cavity radiation) is the thermal radiation of a blackbody, i.e. a body that absorbs all incident radiation. Find out more about blackbody radiation in this article. This article provides answers...
Density anomaly of water in the temperature range between 4 °C and 0 °C (negative thermal expansion)

Density anomaly of water (negative thermal expansion)

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Density anomaly refers to the paradoxical behavior of a substance to expand suddenly when cooling down instead of contracting further (anomalous decrease in density). Learn more about it in this article. This...
Thermal response with cooled and uncooled hand

Temperature scales

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What is temperature in the physical sense a measure for?Which reference points are used as the basis for the Celsius scale and...
Illustration of Brownian particle motion with balls

Temperature and particle motion

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What is the general relationship between the temperature and the particle movement of a substance?Why does the volume of a substance usually...
Particle model of matter (oxygen, hydrogen, water)

Particle model of matter

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What is the particle model of matter?How can the solid, liquid and gaseous states of matter be explained with the particle...