Bending, deformation, plastic, elastic, slip steps, slip planes, dull

Fundamentals of deformation

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What is the difference between elastic and plastic deformation?What is the atomic process of deformation?In which...
Lattice structure, type, unit cell, fcc, bcc, hcp, cubic, body-centered, face-centered, hexagonal closest packed

Influence of the lattice structure on the ductility

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What is a lattice plane?What is meant by a slip system?Why should well-deformable lattice structures have...
edge dislocation, carpet, comparison, shear stress, animation, slip plane, slip step

Deformation process in real crystal structures

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What influence do dislocations have on the ductility of metals?What does the Peierls stress describe?What is...
tensile force, surface normal, slip plane, slip direction, schmid factor, shear stress, law

Schmid’s law

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What is the mathematical relation between an external applied normal stress and the resulting shear stress...
lattice alignment, easy gliding, multiple gliding, single crystal, slip steps

Deformation of ideal crystal structures (single crystal)

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: Why are slip steps preferably characterized by a single crystal at an angle of 45° to...
stress-strain curve, slip plane, slip systems, deformation, single crystal, polycrystal

Deformation process in single crystals

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How to explain the stress-strain curve for single crystals?What is meant by Hooke's law?What characterizes easy...
Microstructural structure of polycrystalline iron

Microstructure formation

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What is meant by a microstructure?What are grains and grain boundaries?What is a single crystal and...
undercooling, supercooling, nucleus, cooling curve, solidification, conditions, melt

Conditions of solidification

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: Which atomic processes take place during solidification?What conditions must be fullfiled for crystallization?What is supercooling?What are...
Heterogeneous, homogeneous, nucleation, native nucleus, melt

Types of nuclei

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What is homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation?How can homogeneous nucleation occur in the melt?Which type of nucleation...
Cooling curve, temperature, time, diagram, solidification, heat of crystallisation

Heat of solidification

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: Why does the temperature remain constant when pure substances solidify?How can it be explained on a...

Amorphous metals

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What are amorphous metals (metallic glasses)?Why is glass a thermodynamic liquid?What is meant by the term glass...
free energy barrier, critical, nucleus radius, activation energy, nucleation, supercooling

Homogeneous nucleation

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How can the Gibbs energy be used to assess whether a process is voluntary or not?How...
Wetting, water, tablecloth, surface tension

Heterogeneous nucleation

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How can foreign particles promote nucleation?What is the contact angle?What influences the contact angle?What is the...
crystal growth, nucleus, dendrites, dendritic, heat dissipation, melt, temperature gradient

Crystal growth

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What is polygonal crystal growth?What distinguishes a microstructure with polygonal crystal growth?What is dendritic crystal growth?What...
classification, alloy types, solid solution, mixed crystal, solubility, insolubility, in-soluble, solid state

Typs of alloys

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What are alloys and why are they needed?What are binary alloy systems?What characterizes a solid solution...
phase diagram, state diagram, perfect solubility, microstructure formation, solid solution, alloy, copper, nickel

Complete solubility of components in solid state (solid solution)

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What is a solid solution?What do the cooling curves of solid solution look like?What is a...
Phase diagram, state diagram, schematic, microstructure fraction

Complete insolubility of components in solid state

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What is a crystal mixture?How do the cooling curves of an alloy with insoluble components look...
Phase diagram, state diagram, schematic, microstructure fraction

Limited solubility of components in solid state

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How does the phase diagram of an alloy with limited solubility of components look like?What is...
iron-works, smelting, schematic, blast furnace, coking plant, sintering plant, charge, skip car, casting hall, hot-blast stove, cowper

Iron ore mining and dressing

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What is steel made of?Which two main processes can be distinguished in steel production from iron...
Blast furnace, throat, stack, belly, bosh, hearth, waste gas, coke, charge, iron ore, charging bell, masonry, water cooling, bustle pipe, tuyere, slag, pig iron

Ironworks

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What is charge?What is meant by charging a blast furnace?What is the function of the slag...
Drying, preheating, indirect, direct reduction, carburizing, melting, tapping

Blast furnace process

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: Why is carbon used for the blast furnace process?How important is the "Boudouard reaction" for the...
Direct reduction, shaft furnace, direct reduced iron process, sponge iron, steel production

Direct reduced iron process

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How does the direct reduction of iron ores work?What is sponge iron?How is crude steel obtained...
Ladle metallurgy, ladle car, crude steel, tapping, casting, secondary metallurgy

From pig iron to crude steel

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: Why is pig iron brittle?What are red shortness and hot shortness?What ist Linz–Donawitz-steelmaking?Why is scrap added...
Electroslag remelting process, ESR process, secondary metallurgy, slag, electrode, melt, mould

From crude steel to steel

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What is secondary metallurgy?What is rimmed steel, semi-killed steel and killed steel?For what purpose is vacuum...
Continuous casting, slab, casting ladle, pouring basin, cooling water, mould, rollers, cutting torches

From steel to semi-finished products

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What are slabs?What are bottom and top pouring?What are the advantages of rimmed steel?Why is only...
Iron-carbon phase diagram, steel part, solidus line, liquidus line, transformation, solubility limit, solvus line, ferrite, austenite, cementite

Microstructure formation during solidification

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What is steel made of?What is the difference between steel and cast iron regarding their composition?Why...
eutectoid steel, micrograph, microstructure, pearlite, ferrite, cementite lamellae

Phase transformations in solidified state (metastable system)

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What is the carbon content of a eutectoid steel?Why is virtually no carbon soluble in ferrite?What...
Microstructure formation, steel, hypo-eutectoid, hyper-eutectoid, pearlitic, pearlite, austenite, ferrite, grain boundary cementite

Summary of phase transformations

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What microstructural transformations does a hypoeutectoid steel undergo during cooling?How does the microstructure of a hypereutectoid...
Iron-carbon phase diagram, steel part, comparison, crystal mixture alloy, insolubility

Comparison of phase transformations

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What analogy can be found between the iron-carbon phase diagram and the phase diagram of an...
iron-carbon phase diagram, determination, microstructure, fraction, pearlite, cementite, ferrite, lever rule

Determination of microstructure and phase fractions

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How can the microstructure fraction of a steel be determined from the iron-carbon phase diagram?How is...

Influence of carbon on hardness and strength of steels

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: Why does the hardness of steel increase with increasing carbon content?How do the cementite lamellae in...
hypoeutectic cast iron, micrograph, microstructure, dendrites, dendritic, pearlite, cementite, ledeburite-II

Cast iron

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What is the difference in microstructure between steels and cast iron?For which manufacturing processes are steels...
Iron-carbon phase diagram, temperature range, overview, normalizing, soft annealing, coarse grain annealing, stress relief annealing, diffusion annealing, recrystallisation annealing

Overview of heat treatment processes

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What is a rolling texture?How should a metal sheet be bent with respect to its rolling...
Normalizing, connecting rod, heterogeneous, homogeneous, microstructure, grain distribution, grain refinement, uniform

Annealing processes

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What are the objectives of annealing processes, such as normalizing, soft annealing, coarse grain annealing, recrystallisation...
Hardening, tempering, diagram, temperature, austenitizing, quenching,

Quenching and tempering

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What is the aim of quenching and tempering compared to hardening?In which three process steps can...
flame hardening, principle, surface hardening, surface hardening, water spray, burner nozzles

Surface hardening (case-hardening)

Surface hardening is used to produce a hard and wear-resistant surface layer on steel workpieces, while the toughness in the core is largely retained. You will find more information...
Tension, compression, shearing, torsion, twisting, bending, buckling

Destructive material testing & non-destructive testing (NDT)

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What type of loads do exist?What is dimensioning?What is the primary purpose of destructive testing?In which...
reduction in area, necking, tensile specimens, brittle, ductile, fracture

Tensile test

The tensile test is used to determine material parameters such as strength (yield point, ultimate tensile strength) and toughness (elongation at break)! More information about the tensile test can...
compression test, setup, pressure test, pressure plate

Compression test

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: Why are no longish specimens used in the compression test?Why is the true compressive stress lower...
Brinell hardness test, process, procedure, surface, carbide ball

Hardness test

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How is the hardness of materials defined?On which principles are all hardness testing methods based?Which indenter...
Flexural test, setup, support pins, fin, span

Flexural test

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How does the flexural stress distribution in the cross-section of a specimen subjected to bend loading...
Charpy impact test, setup, specimen, drag indicator, dial gauge, striker, pendulum hammer, support

Charpy impact test

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What are the objectives of the "Charpy impact test"?Why does "notch impact energy" represent a measure...
fatigue test, Wöhler test, static, dynamic drive, testing, fatigue strength, limit

Fatigue test

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What are the objectives of the fatigue test and how is it carried out?Why should the...
creep diagram, curve, limit, rupture strength

Stress rupture test (creep rupture test)

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What is a hot yield strength?What is creep?What factors influence the intensity of creep?At what temperatures...
stress-relaxation test, setup, measurement

Stress-relaxation test

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How is the stress-relaxation test performed?For which applications is the stress-relaxation test of great importance?What is...
cupping test, punch, blank holder, sheet metal sample, die

Cupping test

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What is the cupping test (according to Erichsen)?What is cold formability?
ultrasonic inspection, sound waves, probe, coupling agent, flaw, echo, backwall, input

Ultrasonic testing (UT)

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What is the measurement principle behind ultrasonic testing?What is the coupling agent used for?How are ultrasound...
Dye penetrant inspection, liquid, penetration, colorant, developer, flaw detection ink

Dye penetrant inspection (DPI)

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How is dye penetrant inspection carried out and where is it used?What is the purpose of...
magnetic particle inspection, magnetic field lines, flow, flux test, component, coil, yoke, crack, stray field

Magnetic particle inspection (MPI)

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What is the principle behind magnetic particle inspection?How should flaws be aligned with respect to the...
Eddy current testing, measuring instrument, probe coil

Eddy current testing (ECT)

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How does eddy current testing work?Why are two induction coils often connected against to each other?