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# Mechanical power transmission

### Belt tensioner systems for belt drives

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Various belt tensioner systems are used to maintain the tension in the belt. The most important ones are described in more detail below. Why mus belt tension be assured? The importance of the...

### Hypoid gears (screw bevel gears)

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With hypoid gears, rotary motions between non-intersecting axes can be realized! https://youtu.be/9UXIYhE8z_s With the bevel gears considered so far, the axes of the ring gear and pinion intersect at a certain point. In...

### External and internal toothing of gears

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With internal toothing, the center distance to an externally toothed gear can be shortened. https://youtu.be/iYZR8oAr0cY For cylindrical gears, a basic distinction can be made between external gears and internal gears. In the case...

### Herringbone gears and double helical gears

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Herringbone gears combine the advantage of helical gears (high load capacity) with that of spur gears (no axial forces). https://youtu.be/iYZR8oAr0cY Herringbone gears In order to combine the advantage of helical gears (higher load capacity...

### Helical gears

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Helical gears have a lower noise level and can transmit higher torques than spur gears! https://youtu.be/iYZR8oAr0cY When it comes down to reduce noises and transmit high torques, helical gears are often used. With...

### Screw gears (crossed helical gears)

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Screw gears or crossed helical gears are hyperboloid gears that allow the skew mating of the gear shafts! https://youtu.be/9UXIYhE8z_s With the gears considered so far, the axes of rotation are always parallel when...

### Spur gears (straight-cut gears)

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Straight-cut gears (spur gears) are the simplest type of toothing. In a spur gear, up to 3 teeth are in mesh at the same time. https://youtu.be/iYZR8oAr0cY If the teeth of a toothed gearwheel...

### Rack (toothed bar)

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Racks (toothed bar) allow the rotary motion of a spur gear to be converted into a straight-line motion of the rack. https://youtu.be/iYZR8oAr0cY While only rotary motions occur with conventional cylindrical gears, a rack...

### What types of transmissions (gearboxes) are there?

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Roughly speaking, gearboxes are divided into four types: gear drives, belt drives, chain drives and friction wheel drive. https://youtu.be/vbfA5kRrU0g Introduction Transmission are available in many different types, depending on the application, e.g. as gear...

### What is a transmission (gearbox) and what is it used for?

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Transmissions control the power supplied in favor of a high velocity (rotational speed) or in favor of a high force (torque)! https://youtu.be/vbfA5kRrU0g Where are gearboxes used? In mechanical engineering there are many technical systems,...

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### Construction of the cycloidal disc of a cycloidal drive

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Learn more about the design of the cycloidal disc of a cycloidal drive in this article. https://youtu.be/BRtpldwicv4 Design of the cycloidal disc Cycloidal disc with ordinary cycloid As already explained in the article "Operating principle",...

### Lantern pinion as a special case of cycloidal gear

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In this article, you can learn more about a lantern pinion as a special case of cycloidal gear. Operating principle A special case of cycloidal gearing with point tooth form is the so-called...

### Meshing of cycloidal gears

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In this article, learn more about the meshing of the teeth of cycloidal gears. Line of action The figure below shows the meshing of two cycloidal gears. The dash dotted pitch circles are...

### Construction and design of cycloidal gears

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The shape of the flank of a cycloidal gear corresponds to a cycloid constructed by rolling a rolling circle on a base circle. Construction of a cycloid The shape of the flank of...

### What is a roots type blower and how does it work?

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In this article, learn more about the design and operation of a roots type blower and its application as a supercharger. Operating principle The animation below shows the operating principle of a Roots-type...

### Undercut of gears

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Undercut occurs when the number of teeth of a gear is too small. An undercut leads to a weakening of the strength of the tooth! https://youtu.be/bol1U0BHcew Undercut Undercut due to manufacturing process The animation...

### Rack

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In this article, learn more about the meshing of the teeth of a gear with the teeth of a rack. https://youtu.be/g4USx2hj3eU Introduction The fundamentals when two gears are meshing have already been explained in...

### Engaging of involute gears (meshing)

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The points of contact of two meshing tooth flanks describe a straight line for involute gears (line of action or line of engagement). https://youtu.be/lMmWsbdTDng Line of action Due to the special design of the...

### Calculation of involute gears

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https://youtu.be/wsKFVU3X8I8 Involute function For the calculation of involute gears, the involute tooth flank must first be described mathematically. The figure below shows the involute belonging to the base circle with the radius rb....

### Gear cutting (gear manufacturing)

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Learn more about the different manufacturing processes for cutting involute gears in this article. Gear hobbing Involute gears are often manufactured by hobbing. The cutting edges of a hob are straight-flanked and wrap...

### Profile shift of involute gears

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In the case of a profile shift, the reference profile of the gear is shifted outwards during the manufacturing process in order to positively influence the meshing. https://youtu.be/RgMSsQApYIk Introduction In the article Undercut of...

### Construction and design of involute gears

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Involute toothing is often used in mechanical engineering for gears, as it offers favorable meshing and is easy to produce. https://youtu.be/99Msd8sSF8Y Introduction In mechanical engineering, the involute is used almost exclusively as a tooth...

### How does a differential gear work?

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Learn more about the design, function and application of a differential gear and the differential lock in this article. https://youtu.be/HY3ZnjZtrQw Why does a car need a differential gear? In automobiles, the wheels are usually...

### How does a three-speed gear hub work?

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Learn more about the structure and function of the planetary gear in a three-speed gear hub in this article. https://youtu.be/8R3xzAdxYIc Assembly and function The figure below schematically shows the assembled components of a three-speed...

### Derivation of Willis equation (fundamental equation of planetary gears)

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The Willis equation describes the motion of the individual gears of a planetary gearbox (epicyclic gear). https://youtu.be/oXD9uJb_TOg Superposition of motions The change in speed of planetary gearboxes are no longer as easy to understand...

### How does a planetary gear work?

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A planetary gear is an epicyclic gear in which several gears (planet gears) mesh with a central gear (sun gear). https://youtu.be/cKjWcUvZuhM Stationary gearbox So-called stationary gearboxes are characterised by the fact that the gear wheels...

### How does a belt drive work?

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In belt drives, the power transmission between the driving pulley and the driven pulley is usually force-locked by flexible belts. Introduction In belt drives, power is transmitted between at least two pulleys by...

### Calculation of the belt length for belt drives

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Learn in this article how to calculate the length of belts for belt drives. For the construction of belt drives it is necessary to determine both the wrap angle and the belt...

### Slippage of the belt in belt drives

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The relative motion on the pulleys, which is always present due to the elasticity of the belt, is called elastic slip! Elastic slip When the belt rotates around the pulleys, it is exposed...

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### Power transmission of a belt drive

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In this article, learn more about the power transmission in belt drives and the necessary pretensioning force. Circumferential force in the belt In belt drives, forces are transmitted from the input pulley to...

### Centrifugal forces in the belt of a belt drive

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At high speeds, the centrifugal forces acting on the belt reduce the contact pressure and thus the maximum transmittable circumferential force. Formation of centrifugal forces With a belt drive in a resting state,...

### Maximum belt stress in belt drives

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In this article, learn more about the maximum belt stress, which must not be exceeded, otherwise the belt will be damaged. Introduction In general, the forces acting in the belt must not exceed...

### Optimum belt speed for belt drives

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At a certain optimum belt speed, a belt drive can transmit the maximum possible power. Introduction In the article Mechanical power it was shown that an object that is moved by a force...

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### Basics of power transmission in belt drives

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The basis of power transmission in the belt drive is the belt friction equation according to Euler and Eytelwein (rope friction equation). Forces acting on a fixed pulley In the article How does...

### Bevel gears

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In bevel gears, the axes of the gears are at right angles to each other. Bevel gears are used to change the spatial direction of rotation. https://youtu.be/bOowIc54vL4 Introduction In contrast to cylindrical gears, where...

### Worms and worm gears

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With a worm gear, high loads can be transmitted at a high transmission ratio. https://youtu.be/eNL3aAVhD9M Operating principle A special design of the gear wheel is the so-called worm. In this case, the tooth winds...

### Overview of gear types

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Depending on the shape of the gears and the type of toothing, gears can be classified as spur gears, bevel gears and worms or worm gears. https://youtu.be/iYZR8oAr0cY The figure below shows a selection...

### Lubrication of gears (transmissions)

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Gears must be lubricated due to the high stress (friction) when meshing with another gear. Introduction Gear wheels of transmissions are subject to wear due to sliding processes on the flanks. Therefore, the...

### What is a gear stage?

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A gear stage is a wheel pairing within a gearbox at which the speed or torque changes! Learn more about gear stages in this article. https://youtu.be/vbfA5kRrU0g Definition The figure below schematically shows a toothed...

### Mechanical power

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The mechanical power is determined by the force and speed or by the torque and rotational speed. https://youtu.be/vbfA5kRrU0g Introduction The term power (in the physical sense) plays an important role in transmissions, since they have...

### How does a gearbox (transmission) work?

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The conversion of speed and torque takes place in gearboxes through the arrangement of gears or pulleys of different sizes. https://youtu.be/vbfA5kRrU0g Conversion of speed As explained in the article What is a transmission...