Cut through a vapour filled thermometer (vapour-in-metal thermometer)

How does a vapour pressure thermometer (vapour-in-metal) work?

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How do vapor pressure thermometers work?Why do vapor pressure thermometers have a non-linear scale? The less popular vapour pressure thermometers work according to...
Cut through a gas filled thermometer (gas-in-metal thermometer)

How does a gas filled thermometer (gas-in-metal) work?

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How do gas filled thermometers work?What are the advantages of gas-in-metal thermometers compared to liquid-in-metal thermometers?How can the influence of the...
Illustration of the photon gas in a cavity acting as a blackbody

Thermodynamic derivation of the Stefan-Boltzmann Law

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In this article the Stefan-Boltzmann-Law is to be derived using the laws of thermodynamics. This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How can the Stefan-Boltzmann law be derived from the...
White glow of a blackbody at 6000 K

Blackbody radiation

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Blackbody radiation (cavity radiation) is the thermal radiation of a blackbody, i.e. a body that absorbs all incident radiation. Find out more about blackbody radiation in this article. This article provides answers...
Cut through a liquid filled thermometer (liquid-in-metal thermometer)

How does a liquid filled thermometer (liquid-in-metal) work?

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How do a liquid-in-metal thermometers work?Why should the inner diameter of the coiled tube be kept as small as possible?How can large...
Visible radiation of a light bulb

Stefan-Boltzmann law & Kirchhoff’s law of thermal radiation

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The Stefan-Boltzmann law states that the radiant power of an object in thermal equilibrium is proportional to the fourth power of temperature and directly proportional to its surface! Learn more about...
Resistance thermometer (Pt100)

How does a resistance temperature detector (resistance thermometer) work?

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How do resistance thermometers work?Why should the measurement current for an RTD be as low as possible?How can the temperature be determined...
Radiation of a black body into half-space

Different forms of Planck’s law

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Planck's law of radiation can be expressed in different forms. The most important ones are discussed in this article. This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What is meant by...
Particle model of matter (oxygen, hydrogen, water)

Particle model of matter

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What is the particle model of matter?How can the solid, liquid and gaseous states of matter be explained with the particle...
Thermocouple

How does a thermocouple work?

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How does a thermocouple work?What is the Seebeck effect?What are the differences between the types of thermocouples?What is cold junction compensation?What are...
Thermographic image of a car

How does a thermal imaging camera work?

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How do thermal imaging cameras work?Why is the thermal image displayed in false colors? Thermal imaging cameras are based on the same principle...
Infrared thermometer (Pyrometer)

How does a infrared thermometer (pyrometer) work?

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How do IR thermometers (pyrometers) work?What are the advantages of pyrometers? The thermometers presented in the previous articles must directly touch the object...
Thermal response with cooled and uncooled hand

Temperature scales

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What is temperature in the physical sense a measure for?Which reference points are used as the basis for the Celsius scale and...
Thermal stratification of a lake in summer

Why does ice form on the top of a lake?

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Learn in this article why ice form always on top of a lake in winter. The negative thermal expansion of water (density anomaly) has an existential importance for life on earth. More...
Density anomaly of water in the temperature range between 4 °C and 0 °C (negative thermal expansion)

Density anomaly of water (negative thermal expansion)

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Density anomaly refers to the paradoxical behavior of a substance to expand suddenly when cooling down instead of contracting further (anomalous decrease in density). Learn more about it in this article. This...