Thermocouple

How does a thermocouple work?

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How does a thermocouple work?What is the Seebeck effect?What are the differences between the types of thermocouples?What is cold junction compensation?What are...
Cut through a liquid filled thermometer (liquid-in-metal thermometer)

How does a liquid filled thermometer (liquid-in-metal) work?

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How do a liquid-in-metal thermometers work?Why should the inner diameter of the coiled tube be kept as small as possible?How can large...
Spectral distribution of the intensity of the radiation of a blackbody (Planck spectrum)

Planck’s law and Wien’s displacement law

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Planck's law describes the radiation emitted by black bodies and Wien's displacement law the maximum of the spectral intensity of this radiation. Learn more about it in this article. This article provides...
Infrared thermometer (Pyrometer)

How does a infrared thermometer (pyrometer) work?

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How do IR thermometers (pyrometers) work?What are the advantages of pyrometers? The thermometers presented in the previous articles must directly touch the object...
Illustration of Brownian particle motion with balls

Temperature and particle motion

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What is the general relationship between the temperature and the particle movement of a substance?Why does the volume of a substance usually...
White glow of a blackbody at 6000 K

Blackbody radiation

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Blackbody radiation (cavity radiation) is the thermal radiation of a blackbody, i.e. a body that absorbs all incident radiation. Find out more about blackbody radiation in this article. This article provides answers...
Thermal stratification of a lake in summer

Why does ice form on the top of a lake?

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Learn in this article why ice form always on top of a lake in winter. The negative thermal expansion of water (density anomaly) has an existential importance for life on earth. More...
Radiation of a black body into half-space

Different forms of Planck’s law

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Planck's law of radiation can be expressed in different forms. The most important ones are discussed in this article. This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What is meant by...
Particle model of matter (oxygen, hydrogen, water)

Particle model of matter

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What is the particle model of matter?How can the solid, liquid and gaseous states of matter be explained with the particle...
Visible radiation of a light bulb

Stefan-Boltzmann law & Kirchhoff’s law of thermal radiation

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The Stefan-Boltzmann law states that the radiant power of an object in thermal equilibrium is proportional to the fourth power of temperature and directly proportional to its surface! Learn more about...
Resistance thermometer (Pt100)

How does a resistance temperature detector (resistance thermometer) work?

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How do resistance thermometers work?Why should the measurement current for an RTD be as low as possible?How can the temperature be determined...
Cut through a vapour filled thermometer (vapour-in-metal thermometer)

How does a vapour pressure thermometer (vapour-in-metal) work?

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How do vapor pressure thermometers work?Why do vapor pressure thermometers have a non-linear scale? The less popular vapour pressure thermometers work according to...
Illustration of the photon gas in a cavity acting as a blackbody

Thermodynamic derivation of the Stefan-Boltzmann Law

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In this article the Stefan-Boltzmann-Law is to be derived using the laws of thermodynamics. This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How can the Stefan-Boltzmann law be derived from the...
Thermographic image of a car

How does a thermal imaging camera work?

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How do thermal imaging cameras work?Why is the thermal image displayed in false colors? Thermal imaging cameras are based on the same principle...
Principle of temperature measurement with a liquid-in-glass-thermometer

How does a liquid-in-glass thermometer work?

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How do liquid thermometers work?What properties must thermometric liquids have?Why is mercury hardly used as a thermometer fluid nowadays?Which liquids are predominantly...