Home Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics

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Pressure and temperature

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What is the kinetic theory of gases?What are the assumptions on which the kinetic theory of...

How does a thermal imaging camera work?

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How do thermal imaging cameras work?Why is the thermal image displayed in false colors?

How does a gas filled thermometer (gas-in-metal) work?

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How do gas filled thermometers work?What are the advantages of gas-in-metal thermometers compared to liquid-in-metal...

Heat equation (diffusion equation)

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The heat equation describes the temporal and spatial behavior of temperature for heat transport by thermal conduction. Read more about it in this article.

Temperature scales

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What is temperature in the physical sense a measure for?Which reference points are used as the...

Heat transfer by thermal conduction

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Heat transfer by thermal conduction means that heat is conducted through a material. Heat energy is transferred from molecule to molecule at the atomic level. More information on this...

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Thermal conductivity (Fourierâ€™s law)

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Thermal conductivity is a measure of how well or poorly a material conducts heat energy (measure of the strength of heat conduction)! You can read more about this in...

Stefanâ€“Boltzmann law & Kirchhoff’s law of thermal radiation

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The Stefan-Boltzmann law states that the radiant power of an object in thermal equilibrium is proportional to the fourth power of temperature and directly proportional to its surface! Learn...

How does a liquid filled thermometer (liquid-in-metal) work?

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How do a liquid-in-metal thermometers work?Why should the inner diameter of the coiled tube be kept...

Transient-Hot-Wire method method for determining thermal conductivity (THW)

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With the Transient-Hot-Wire method (THW), the thermal conductivity is determined by the change in temperature over time at a certain distance from a heating wire. Learn more about the...

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Laser-Flash method for determining thermal conductivity (LFA)

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With the Laser-Flash method (Laser Flash Analyser, LFA), the thermal conductivity is determined by the temperature rise in a test sample that is heated by a short laser pulse...

Particle model of matter

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What is the particle model of matter?How can the solid, liquid and gaseous states of...

Internal energy & heat capacity

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What is the internal energy of a gas?What are the characteristics of the thermal...

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Heat and thermodynamic equilibrium

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In thermodynamics, heat is the transport of energy due to a temperature difference. Heat in this respect is never "contained" in an object! Learn more about the thermodynamic concept...

How does a liquid-in-glass thermometer work?

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How do liquid thermometers work?What properties must thermometric liquids have?Why is mercury hardly used as a...

Temperature profiles and heat flows through different geometries

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In this article we discuss temperature curves and heat flows through a plane wall, through a cylindrical pipe and through a hollow sphere.

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How does a resistance temperature detector (resistance thermometer) work?

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How do resistance thermometers work?Why should the measurement current for an RTD be as low as...

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Derivation of the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution function

The Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution function of the molecular speed of ideal gases can be derived from the barometric formula. This article shows the derivation.

Equipartition theorem

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What statement does the equipartition theorem provide?What is a degree of freedom in the thermodynamic sense?Why...

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How does a thermocouple work?

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How does a thermocouple work?What is the Seebeck effect?What are the differences between the types of...

Thermal conductivity of gases

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The thermal conductivity of ideal gases is not dependent on pressure for gases that are not too strongly thinned. This is no longer the case for gases with low...

How does a bimetallic strip thermometer work?

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How do bimetal thermometers work?Why is the bimetal wrapped into a spiral or a helix?Why are...

Heat transfer (heat transport)

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Heat transfer is the transport of thermal energy from a warmer object to a cooler object. A distinction is made between thermal convection, thermal conduction and thermal radiation. You...

Determination of the speed distribution in a gas

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How can the speeds of the particles in a gas be determined experimentally?What is a histogram?What...

Heat-Flow-Meter method for determining thermal conductivity (HFM)

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With the Heat-Flow-Meter method (HFM) the thermal conductivity is determined by comparative measurement of the heat flow using a reference sample. Learn more about this absolute measurement method in...

Rate of heat flow: Definition and direction

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The rate of heat flow refers to the heat energy transferred per unit of time ("heat output"). The drive for the heat flow is a temperature difference. Learn more...

Temperature and particle motion

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What is the general relationship between the temperature and the particle movement of a substance?Why does...

Guarded-Hot-Plate method for determining thermal conductivity (GHP)

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With the Guarded-Hot-Plate method (GHP) the thermal conductivity is determined by the electrical power output of a hot plate with guided heat conduction. Learn more about this measurement method...

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