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# Thermodynamics

### Derivation of the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution function

The Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution function of the molecular speed of ideal gases can be derived from the barometric formula. This article shows the derivation.

### How does a vapour pressure thermometer (vapour-in-metal) work?

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How do vapor pressure thermometers work?Why do vapor pressure thermometers have a non-linear scale?

### How does a gas filled thermometer (gas-in-metal) work?

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How do gas filled thermometers work?What are the advantages of gas-in-metal thermometers compared to liquid-in-metal...

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### How does a liquid filled thermometer (liquid-in-metal) work?

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How do a liquid-in-metal thermometers work?Why should the inner diameter of the coiled tube be kept...

### Stefan–Boltzmann law & Kirchhoff’s law of thermal radiation

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The Stefan-Boltzmann law states that the radiant power of an object in thermal equilibrium is proportional to the fourth power of temperature and directly proportional to its surface! Learn...

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### How does a resistance temperature detector (resistance thermometer) work?

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How do resistance thermometers work?Why should the measurement current for an RTD be as low as...

### Internal energy & heat capacity

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What is the internal energy of a gas?What are the characteristics of the thermal...

### Determination of the speed distribution in a gas

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How can the speeds of the particles in a gas be determined experimentally?What is a histogram?What...

### Equipartition theorem

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What statement does the equipartition theorem provide?What is a degree of freedom in the thermodynamic sense?Why...

### Particle model of matter

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What is the particle model of matter?How can the solid, liquid and gaseous states of...

### Guarded-Hot-Plate method for determining thermal conductivity (GHP)

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With the Guarded-Hot-Plate method (GHP) the thermal conductivity is determined by the electrical power output of a hot plate with guided heat conduction. Learn more about this measurement method...

### Thermal conductivity (Fourier’s law)

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Thermal conductivity is a measure of how well or poorly a material conducts heat energy (measure of the strength of heat conduction)! You can read more about this in...

### Heat and thermodynamic equilibrium

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In thermodynamics, heat is the transport of energy due to a temperature difference. Heat in this respect is never "contained" in an object! Learn more about the thermodynamic concept...

### Transient-Hot-Wire method method for determining thermal conductivity (THW)

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With the Transient-Hot-Wire method (THW), the thermal conductivity is determined by the change in temperature over time at a certain distance from a heating wire. Learn more about the...

### How does a thermocouple work?

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How does a thermocouple work?What is the Seebeck effect?What are the differences between the types of...

### Heat transfer by thermal convection

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With heat transfer by thermal convection, heat is transported with a flowing substance. Convection only occurs in fluids, i.e. gases and liquids. You will find more information in this...

### Temperature scales

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What is temperature in the physical sense a measure for?Which reference points are used as the...

### Heat equation (diffusion equation)

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The heat equation describes the temporal and spatial behavior of temperature for heat transport by thermal conduction. Read more about it in this article.

### Why do liquids evaporate?

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How can the evaporation of liquids be explained?Why does a cooling effect occur during evaporation?Why does...

### Pressure and temperature

This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What is the kinetic theory of gases?What are the assumptions on which the kinetic theory of...

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### Thermal conductivity of gases

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The thermal conductivity of ideal gases is not dependent on pressure for gases that are not too strongly thinned. This is no longer the case for gases with low...

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### Rate of heat flow: Definition and direction

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The rate of heat flow refers to the heat energy transferred per unit of time ("heat output"). The drive for the heat flow is a temperature difference. Learn more...

### Heat transfer by thermal conduction

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Heat transfer by thermal conduction means that heat is conducted through a material. Heat energy is transferred from molecule to molecule at the atomic level. More information on this...

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### How does a thermal imaging camera work?

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How do thermal imaging cameras work?Why is the thermal image displayed in false colors?

### Heat-Flow-Meter method for determining thermal conductivity (HFM)

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With the Heat-Flow-Meter method (HFM) the thermal conductivity is determined by comparative measurement of the heat flow using a reference sample. Learn more about this absolute measurement method in...

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### Temperature profiles and heat flows through different geometries

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In this article we discuss temperature curves and heat flows through a plane wall, through a cylindrical pipe and through a hollow sphere.

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### Heat transfer (heat transport)

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Heat transfer is the transport of thermal energy from a warmer object to a cooler object. A distinction is made between thermal convection, thermal conduction and thermal radiation. You...

### Thermal and concentration boundary layer

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In addition to the hydrodynamic boundary layer, the thermal boundary layer and the concentration boundary layer also have a decisive influence on the entire heat and mass transport in...

### Laser-Flash method for determining thermal conductivity (LFA)

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With the Laser-Flash method (Laser Flash Analyser, LFA), the thermal conductivity is determined by the temperature rise in a test sample that is heated by a short laser pulse...

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### Calculation of the Nusselt numbers for forced flows over plates and in pipes

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In this article you will find formulas for calculating the local and average Nusselt numbers for forced flows over plates and in pipes with circular cross sections.

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