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# Gases and liquids

### Exercises with solutions based on the Bernoulli equation

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In this article exercises with solutions based on the Bernoulli equation are given. Bernoulli equation The Bernoulli equation is based on the conservation of energy of flowing fluids. The derivation of this equation...

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### Moody chart (diagram)

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The Moody diagram is a chart showing the Darcy friction factor of a pipe as a function of the Reynolds number for selected roughnesses of the pipe wall. Learn more about...

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### How does a drinking straw work?

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How does drinking with a straw work from a physical point of view?What role does ambient pressure play?Why is there a maximum...

### Flow separation (boundary layer separation)

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In the case of a boundary layer separation (flow separation), the flow can no longer follow the profile of the body around which it flows and separates turbulently from it. Learn...

### Thermal and concentration boundary layer

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In addition to the hydrodynamic boundary layer, the thermal boundary layer and the concentration boundary layer also have a decisive influence on the entire heat and mass transport in a flow....

### How does a hydraulic jack work: Pascals law

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A hydraulic jack is based on Pascal's law, which states that the pressure in liquids acts equally in all directions. This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What does Pascal's...

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### Siphon

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How does a siphon work?What is the maximum height to the apex of the flexible tube that can be covered?Why does a...

### How do boats float: Buoyancy in liquids

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Buoyancy is the force directed against gravity that an object experiences when submerged in a fluid (liquid or gas). More information on how buoyancy is formed can be found in this...

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### Streamlines, pathlines, streaklines and timelines

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In order to make the flow of fluids "visible", one often uses the model of streamlines, pathlines (trajectories), streaklines or timelines. Learn more about the difference between these lines in this...

### Equation of motion of a fluid on a streamline

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In this article we want to derive the equation of motion of a fluid element on a streamline. For this purpose we describe the equation of motion in the direction of...

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### Pressure in liquids (hydrostatic pressure)

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What causes the hydrostatic pressure in liquids?On which variables does the hydrostatic pressure depend?What is the hydrostatic paradox?What are communicating vessels? Introduction In the...

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### Pressure loss in pipe systems (Darcy friction factor)

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Pressure losses in pipes are caused by internal friction of the fluid (viscosity) and friction between fluid and wall. Pressure losses also occur in components. Learn more about it in this...

### Pressure

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What is pressure?In what way does the contact pressure differ from a gas pressure or liquid pressure with regard to the exerted...

### Viscosity of liquids and gases

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The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of the internal resistance to flow! It is caused by intermolecular forces and transport of momentum within the fluid. Learn more about it...

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### How does a Prandtl tube work?

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A Prandtl tube is used to measure the dynamic pressure. From this, the flow speed relative to the tube can be determined. Erfahren Sie in diesem Artikel mehr darĂ¼ber. Learn more...

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### Derivation of the barometric formula (isothermal atmosphere)

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The barometric formula describes the decrease of air pressure with increasing altitude. Without the influence of the temperature changes, the air pressure decreases by about 1.2% per 100 meters of altitude....

### Pressure in gases

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What causes the pressure in gases?How is the unit bar converted into the unit Pascal?What is meant by positive pressure, negative pressure...

### Calculation of the Nusselt numbers for forced flows over plates and in pipes

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In this article you will find formulas for calculating the local and average Nusselt numbers for forced flows over plates and in pipes with circular cross sections. This article provides answers to...

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